Wednesday, June 21, 2017

Updated Reformed Baptist Resources Page

I have just updated the Reformed Baptist Resources page for this site, and I hope our readers will find it helpful. I have added a few resources, and I have fixed any broken links as well (at least all of them that I could find). If you have any suggestions or corrections, please feel free to let us know. I am especially interested in schools I may have missed or prominent contemporary theologians I may not have mentioned.

Soli Deo gloria!

Wednesday, June 14, 2017

Bob Schilling Reviews 'He Died for Me'

In a Facebook thread earlier today, Bob Schilling posted this brief, but helpful, review of Jeff Johnson's most recent book He Died for Me:
Having read the book, I'd recommend it to all as a title that challenges some modern assumptions among those who love the doctrines of grace. While defending the free offer of the gospel to all people, Johnson, a committed Calvinist, revisits the implications of the time-proven "Lombardian formula" - the famous statement articulated by Peter Lombard (1096-1164), that Christ's death is "sufficient for all, but efficient only for the elect." Universal sufficiency and limited efficacy.

Pastor Johnson deals with Theodore Beza's (Calvin's successor) revision of the formula which was also later adopted by men like John Owen, Francis Turretin and A.W. Pink. They revised the sufficiency to be a "hypothetical sufficiency" - that is, Christ's death is not actually sufficient for all men, but would have been, if God had so intended it to be. You see both sides of this debate at the Synod of Dort, and language that delegates could take in both directions: the classic position, an extrinsic sufficiency, a real sufficiency for all men; or an intrinsic sufficiency - an atonement of infinite value, not a universal scope. Both could subscribe to the language used at Dort: "This death of the Son of God is the only and most perfect sacrifice and satisfaction for sins, and is of infinite value and worth, abundantly sufficient to expiate the sins of the whole world."

Chapters 10 and 11 I found very helpful. Chapter 10 is a helpful critique, with the aid of many Reformed theologians, of John Owen's quantitative view of the atonement and his famous "trilemma." Owen's position, says Johnson, and many others - proves too much. The death of Christ does not immediately save anyone. Redemption, though accomplished on the cross, must be applied through faith. Even the elect, prior to their conversion are under the wrath of God (John 3:36; Eph. 2:3); they are not united to Christ personally, until they are justified through faith. "It is possible for Christ to be a sufficient sacrifice for unbelievers without the sacrifice being automatically applied to them" (pg. 126).

The "Case for Universal Sufficiency," chapter 11, is especially powerful. In preaching the Gospel, we are preaching the cross. We can't disjoin the death of Christ from the good news we are preaching to them. More than that, God is making His "appeal through us" (2 Cor. 5:20). On what basis is God promising eternal life and salvation to all people, if Christ has not in any sense died for them? "For this reason, John Bunyan was right when he said, 'For the offer of the gospel cannot, with God's allowance, be offered any further than the death of Jesus Christ doth go; because if that be taken away, there is indeed no gospel.'" (pg. 142)

The Reformed Tradition has a healthy diversity, and a cornerstone of Reformational thought is to be always examining what we believe in the light of the clear teaching of Scripture. Calvinists need to be more aware of the legitimate breadth of orthodoxy by those committed to our historical confessions.

There's lots of good material in this small book - I hope that many will pick it up and read through it carefully.
I couldn't agree more. As I have stated in a previous post on this blog, Jeff's book convinced me. Previously I would still have classified myself as being in the High Calvinist ranks, although allowing for common grace to be a benefit of the atonement for all mankind, until my conversations with Jeffrey Johnson as he worked on finishing the book, followed by my reading of the book when it was finished. It was reading the book with an open heart and mind, though, that won me over and moved me to the Moderate Calvinist camp. A subsequent conversation with Curt Daniel only helped to reinforce my newfound position. The seeds had already been planted, though, as a result of articles Bob Gonzales had written some years back and which are now being rewritten and posted again on his new blog. I now look back with astonishment that I had actually missed so much in my prior reading of men such as Charles Hodge. As Curt put it in my aforementioned conversation with him, I have finally given my Calvinist soteriology some needed "fine tuning." I had been heavily influenced by Owen early on in my development (although I took issue with his exegesis here and there), and I followed his mistake in not seeing clearly the difference it makes when we recognize that election does not flow from the atonement but precedes it. What an obvious point! But I missed its significance until I had my "Owen glasses" removed by Jeff's Scriptural observations.

Tuesday, June 06, 2017

Brandon Adams' Helpful Outline of Nehemiah Coxe's Discourse of the Covenants

Some years ago I was happy to post Brandon Adam's Collapsible Outline of Owen on Hebrews 8:6-13. Today I would like to post another such outline offered by Brandon, this time of Nehemiah Coxe's A Discourse of the Covenants that God Made with Men before the Law. These outlines should prove quite helpful when reading the important work Covenant Theology: From Adam to Christ, which contains both Coxe's Discourse of the Covenants and Owen's Exposition of Hebrews 8:6-13.

I would also highly recommend checking out Brandon Adams' 1689 Federalism website, as well as his blog Contrast, which has many excellent articles. Thanks Brandon!

Saturday, June 03, 2017

Why I Am a Reformed Baptist by James White



The above message reflects many of my own convictions, and I thought the blog's readers would also appreciate it.

Saturday, May 27, 2017

Being Generous and Doing Good (Galatians 6:6-10 Teaching Outline)

Note: Read verses 1-10 in order to get the context in mind.

Introduction: Consider the following illustration from a past edition of Today In The Word:
Harvesting was a far more difficult task before Cyrus McCormick invented the mechanical reaper. Even laboring long hours, farmhands using sickles could harvest no more than one acre per person per day.
When McCormick redesigned his father's defective prototype and presented the world with the first mechanical reaper, he revolutionized farming worldwide. The new machines could harvest more in one hour than one worker could in a whole day. One fact remained the same, however. Whether with sickles or McCormick's invention, farmers could reap only what they had sowed. (Tuesday, April 29, 1997)
And with this we have introduced the theme of today's passage, that of sowing and reaping. But before Paul lays out the principle of sowing and reaping, he first speaks of the importance of sharing in all good things with those who teach.
NKJ Galatians 6:6 Let him who is taught the word share [Present Active Imperative > κοινωνέω, koinōnéō] in all good [ἀγαθός, agathós] things with him who teaches.
This verse serves a dual purpose and provides a transition from one theme to another. It provides an example of bearing one another's burdens, which was the dominant theme of verses 1-5, but it also provides an example of sowing to the Spirit, a theme which Paul takes up in verse 7.

The focus here is clearly on the relationship of the members of the body with those who teach them the Word of God. Paul uses the present tense of the verb koinōnéō when he commands one who is taught to "share in all good things" with the one who teaches him. In this way he stresses the ongoing duty of those who are taught to those who teach them.

But what, precisely, does Paul mean when says to share in all good things? Many commentators take this as a reference to financial provision for pastor-teachers, but I do not think Paul's meaning should be so restricted. To be sure, sharing in all good things would include financial support, and such an idea can certainly be found elsewhere in the teaching of both Christ and Paul. For example, when sending out the Seventy missionaries, one of the instructions Jesus gave them concerned pay for their ministry:
NKJ Luke 10:7 And remain in the same house, eating and drinking such things as they give, for the laborer is worthy of his wages. Do not go from house to house.
When writing to the Corinthians about the same issue, Paul had Jesus' teaching in mind:
NKJ 1 Corinthians 9:11-14 If we have sown spiritual things for you, is it a great thing if we reap your material things? 12 If others are partakers of this right over you, are we not even more? Nevertheless we have not used this right, but endure all things lest we hinder the gospel of Christ. 13 Do you not know that those who minister the holy things eat of the things of the temple, and those who serve at the altar partake of the offerings of the altar? 14 Even so the Lord has commanded that those who preach the gospel should live from the gospel.
When Paul later addressed the issue of pay for elders in his first epistle to Timothy, he again reflected Jesus' teaching on the subject:
NKJ 1 Timothy 5:17-18 Let the elders who rule well be counted worthy of double honor, especially those who labor in the word and doctrine. 18 For the Scripture says, “You shall not muzzle an ox while it treads out the grain” [Deut. 25:4], and, “The laborer is worthy of his wages” [Luke 10:7].
Again, I think Paul's meaning here in Galatians 6:6 would include such financial remuneration, but I do not see how we can restrict his meaning either to financial support or to the office of pastor-teacher, even if we might rightly assume that he has these matters primarily in mind. So, for example, to share in all good things with the one who teaches may well include telling your teachers about what God is doing in your life as a result of their teaching, or perhaps giving them a card to show your appreciation for their hard work, or defending them when they teach the truth even if others attack them.

Perhaps an example from my own life might help. I recall when I first came across this verse as a young believer. I remembered as I thought about it that there had been those in my past who had taught me the truth of the Gospel, despite my consistently having rejected what they said. As many of you know, I grew up believing in works salvation, but despite my heretical views, God had placed godly teachers in my life. Later, after having believed the truth of the Gospel, and as I thought about this verse, I was convicted that I should contact those who had consistently and lovingly taught me the truth. So, for example, I found the address of an older lady named Rose Bailey, who had pulled me aside one Sunday morning as a child and explained to me that we cannot earn God's love and that we don't have to, because He saves us by His grace on account of what Jesus did for us when He died on the cross. I wrote her a rather lengthy letter explaining about how God had saved me and how she had played a role in it. I was then pleasantly surprised to find out that she was still alive, when she wrote me back, telling me how she had prayed for me and how excited she was about what God had done in my life. She also let me know how she had shared my letter with everyone in her small church and that it had been a great encouragement to them as well.

This is one example of how I was able to share in a good thing God had done for me as a result of teaching I had received when I was a twelve or thirteen year old boy. But I can also tell you as a teacher of God's Word that I love to hear about how God is working in your lives as a result of my teaching ministry. It is one of the most encouraging things you could ever do for me, and it helps the burden of the teaching ministry seem much lighter.

In this way, you can help bear my burden and the burden of others who regularly teach within the congregation (recall vs. 2), but in this way you can also sow to the Spirit, as Paul indicates in the next two verses.
NKJ Galatians 6:7 Do not be deceived, God is not mocked; for whatever a man sows, that he will also reap.
Here Paul warns those who might not want to help support the ministry of the Word that they are simply deceiving themselves and mocking God if they fail to realize that they will reap what they sow. I wonder how many faithful pastor-teachers have been under-appreciated – and under-payed as well – by congregations who are deceived into thinking that their selfishness will not come back to bite them in the end, who may not even realize that they are making a mockery of God and His Word, because in the end it is God Himself and His word that they are under-appreciating and devaluing!

Apparently, such a terrible state of affairs was present in the Galatian churches due to the influence of the false teachers among them. You can imagine how discouraged their true teachers were as they began to lose the support of their congregations. But Paul wants them to remember the important principle of reaping and sowing so that they will be convicted of their error and repent. He further describes this principle in verse 8.
NKJ Galatians 6:8 For he who sows to his flesh will of the flesh reap corruption, but he who sows to the Spirit will of the Spirit reap everlasting life.
I think Ronald Fung was correct when he said, “Paul here seems to regard the whole of a man's earthly life as a period of sowing, with harvest awaiting him on the last day: the eschatological yield  is  determined by present sowing” (The Epistle to the Galatians, p. 295, as cited by Thomas Constable, Notes on Galatians, e-Sword).

This is not to say that we may not reap from our sowing to some extent in this life, but rather that we will not ultimately reap the final reward until the future judgment.

William Hendriksen gets it right when he says in his commentary that:
Sowing to the flesh means to allow the old nature to have its way. So also, sowing to the Spirit means to allow the Holy Spirit to have his way. The one who does the latter is walking by the Spirit (5:16), and is being led by the Spirit (5:18). What happens to these contrasted representative individuals? Already in this life, but especially in and after the resurrection at the last day, he who has been sowing to please his flesh will from the harvest-field of the flesh reap destruction, decay. On the other hand, he who has been sowing to please the Spirit will from the harvest-field of the Spirit reap life everlasting. (BNTC, e-Sword)
However, we should not think that Paul intends to say that we somehow earn everlasting life as a result of what we sow in this life. This would deny everything he has taught in this very epistle about how we are justified by grace through faith alone, apart from works. But remember that, although we are saved by faith alone, the faith that saves is never alone. True saving faith always produces good works in the life of the true believer. True saving faith – faith wrought by the Spirit in our hearts – sows to the Spirit rather than to the flesh. Such faith assures us of our heavenly reward. And such faith never gives up, which leads us to the next verse.
NKJ Galatians 6:9 And let us not grow weary while doing good, for in due season [καιρός, kairós], we shall reap if we do not lose heart.
As Leon Morris has aptly noted in his treatment of this verse, “It is easy for the servants of God to become discouraged: the opposition they meet is so constant and the good they are trying to do is so hard to accomplish” (Galatians: Paul's Charter of Christian Freedom, p. 183, as cited by Thomas Constable, Notes on Galatians, e-Sword).

Sowing to the Spirit means doing good, and it means not growing weary in doing good. But does Paul mean to indicate that we should never get tired as we serve the Lord? I don't think so. I think he is talking about the kind of weariness here that leads to losing heart – or becoming discouraged – to the point that we give up. If we serve the Lord in such a way that we keep our eye on the goal, with a faith that doesn't give up on His purposes and never quits believing that He can and will use our efforts, then we can be assured that we will reap the everlasting life that He has promised (vs. 8).

As I see it, Paul is not making our perseverance the basis of our salvation, but he is indicating that our perseverance is connected with our assurance of salvation. And such assurance of God's promise of everlasting life frees us up to serve God at every opportunity, as Paul says that we must do in the following verse.
NKJ Galatians 6:10 Therefore, as we have opportunity [καιρός, kairós], let us do good [ἀγαθός, agathós] to all, especially to those who are of the household of faith.
No wonder Paul has admonished us about the temptation to grow weary and discouraged in going good! He expects us to take advantage of every opportunity to do good to every person we can! Martin DeHaan offers this helpful illustration:
Several years ago an article appeared in Time magazine about a doctor who lived through the terrible bombing of Hiroshima. When the blast occurred, Dr. Fumio Shigeto was waiting for a streetcar only a mile away, but he was sheltered by the corner of a concrete building. Within seconds after the explosion, his ears were filled with the screams of victims all around him.

Not knowing what had happened, he stood there for a moment bewildered—one doctor wondering how he could ever handle this “mountain” of patients. Then, still somewhat stunned, Dr. Shigeto knelt, opened his black bag, and began treating the person nearest to him.

When I look at the staggering needs of a dying world, I can easily become overwhelmed. God certainly doesn’t expect me to frantically try to help everyone in need. That’s too big a burden. Galatians 6 says that we are to “do good to all,” but that doesn’t mean we have to reach everyone. We are to help anyone we can whenever we have the opportunity to do so.

When you are faced with the distressing spiritual needs of a lost world, don’t despair. All God asks is that you do what you can. (“Do What You Can,” Our Daily Bread, March 13, 2000)
Yes, we must do all the good we can for whomever we can. But Paul says this is especially true with regard to our fellow believers, for together with us they are a part of "he household of faith," our spiritual family. This means that, as we set our priorities, our commitment to the welfare of our brothers and sisters in Christ should come first in our thinking. And although we must never let our commitment to the body of Christ cause us to become so inwardly focused that we lose sight of our evangelistic testimony to the world around us, neither should we neglect our primary obligation to the body of Christ in our zeal to reach out to the world.

Conclusion:
I will conclude with the words of the nineteenth-century Scottish commentator John Brown, who has done a good job of driving home the point Paul is making here:
Every poor and distressed man has a claim on me for pity, and, if I can afford it, for active exertion and pecuniary relief. But a poor Christian has a far stronger claim on my feelings, my labors, and my property. He is my  brother, equally interested as myself in the blood and love of the Redeemer. I expect to spend an  eternity with him in heaven. He is the representative of my unseen Savior, and he considers everything done to his poor afflicted as done to himself. For a Christian to be unkind to a Christian is not only wrong, it is monstrous. (As cited by Timothy George, NAC, p. 428)
I hope we will all remember as we leave here today that we will reap what we sow, whether it is through our giving financially and materially to others or through providing emotional support and encouragement. And how we sow in this respect is a very good indicator of whether or not we are true believers who can have assurance of God's promise of everlasting life.

Monday, May 15, 2017

He Died for Me by Jeff Johnson

Jeff Johnson's new book, He Died For Me, is now available in paperback. Jeff describes the book as essentially about an “in-house debate among Calvinists,” and that it is. But I think even non-Calvinists would learn a great deal from this book. It is an excellent introduction to the historical debate concerning the efficacy and sufficiency of the atonement that anyone interested in the issue ought to read. Whether one agrees with Jeff’s final answer or not, he or she will certainly come away with a better understanding of the issues, both biblically and historically, and, no doubt, a better understanding of his or her own position as well. As for me, I approached the book with a fairly high degree of skepticism, but I was surprised by it in several ways. First, I was surprised to discover that I did not understand the historical background of the debate nearly as a well as I thought I did. Second, I was surprised to discover that I hadn’t been nearly as consistent in my thinking on the matter as I thought I had been. And, third, I was surprised that the book won me over. Jeff convinced me of his position. In addition, the book is written in a very clear and accessible way. So, for all these reasons, I highly recommend it. Even if you are not convinced by Jeff’s own arguments in the end, you will certainly learn a lot from the book. However, you may just end up being as surprised as I was. You may just end up agreeing with it! Be sure to buy your copy now

Friday, May 12, 2017

Bearing One's Own Load (Galatians 6:3-5 Teaching Outline)

Note: As I have pointed out before, I have a habit of including references to Greek terms in my notes, whether I actually refer to them or not, so I have left them in with transliterations.

Introduction: Remember that in last week's post we saw that Paul describes the Christian life as a battle between the flesh and the Spirit (5:16-17) and that he further describes how crucial it is that we follow the Spirit's leading if we are to have victory in the conflict. He even describes walking in the Spirit as similar to the way a soldier follows his commander and heeds his commands. We are like soldiers at war, who must follow our leader –  the Holy Spirit – and heed His commands. And, just as when one soldier is exhausted or wounded, the others help to carry the load, even so we must all recognize our responsibility to bear one another's burdens. This was the focus of last week's study of verses 1-2, but the focus of today's study is on the responsibility each one of us has to bear his own load. After all, every soldier in battle is ultimately responsible for his own pack. This responsibility is emphasized in verse 5, where Paul gives the reason for what he says in verses 3-4.
NKJ Galatians 6:5 For [γάρ, gár] each one shall bear [Future Active Indicative > βαστάζω, bastázō] his own load [φορτίον, phortíon].
The Greek word translated load here is defined by the Linguistic Key to the Greek New Testament as a “burden, a load which one is expected to bear. It was used as a military term for a man's pack or a soldier's kit” (p. 519). But how do we understand the two responsibilities Paul has enjoined upon us in this passage, on the one hand to bear one another's burdens, and on the other hand to each bear his own load? Is there a contradiction here? Of course I don't think so. In fact, I agree with the assessment of Spiros Zodhiates, who has ably addressed this matter in his Complete Word Study Dictionary:
Some critics contend that a contradiction exists in Gal. 6 between Paul's injunction that we should bear “one another's burdens” (Gal 6:2) and his assertion that “every man shall bear his own burden” (Gal 6:5). However, the conflict is only apparent. In Gal 6:2 the word for burden is báros, a burden or difficulty. In Gal 6:5 the word for burden is phortíon, responsibility. In the first case, Christians are being enjoined to help each other bear up under the vicissitudes of life. In the last case, Christians are told that each person must assume responsibility for his particular (ídios, one's own) duties in life; they have no right to shirk their responsibilities or to expect others to perform them. (e-Sword)
So, Paul teaches in this passage that mutual accountability and personal responsibility go hand-in-hand for the Christian. We must never emphasize one without the other. We must each “bear one another's burdens” (vs. 2), and we must also each “bear his own load” (vs. 5).

Scot McKnight wrestles with this issue in his commentary on this passage, where he writes that:
Our personal responsibility before God does not rob us of our accountability to others, nor does it put us on a deserted island to live a solitary life. These are Western problems that need to be faced, and the message of Paul – a mutual accountability that does not deny personal responsibility and a personal responsibility that includes a mutual accountability – stares our world in the face.

I make one more observation regarding personal responsibility. In our culture we have become acutely aware of the origins and causes of our behavior. I am aware, for instance, that certain aspects of my personality come from what I learned from my father and mother; I am aware as well that some of my traits (both good and bad) appear in my two children. This is a common perception today. But in this process, at times there is an implicit excuse for our personality traits or our behavior. “I cannot help it,” one might cry, “because this is how I was raised.” Or, “You would not blame me if you knew my past.” We must sympathize here with the obvious reality that what we do and who we are result from what others have made us, and we should not refrain from recognizing that certain bad dimensions of people are not solely their fault. But what the Bible teaches is that we are personally responsible for everything we are and for everything we do, regardless of the causes and problems we might have. This, of course, leads to an entire feature of application: urging people to accept responsibility for everything they do and are. Paul teaches that we must “bear our own burdens” in this regard.
I essentially agree with McKnight's position, but I think it is also important to point out that, when Paul says that “each one shall bear his own load,” he is speaking in the future tense. So, to be sure, although we must each recognize our own responsibilities now, what Paul has primarily in mind is a future accountability before God, which I think will happen at the final judgment. He also speaks of this future judgment for Christians in his first epistle to the Corinthians:
NKJ 1 Corinthians 3:10-15 According to the grace of God which was given to me, as a wise master builder I have laid the foundation, and another builds on it. But let each one take heed how he builds on it. 11 For no other foundation can anyone lay than that which is laid, which is Jesus Christ. 12 Now if anyone builds on this foundation with gold, silver, precious stones, wood, hay, straw, 13 each one's work will become clear; for the Day will declare it, because it will be revealed by fire; and the fire will test each one's work, of what sort it is. 14 If anyone's work which he has built on it endures, he will receive a reward. 15 If anyone's work is burned, he will suffer loss; but he himself will be saved, yet so as through fire.
Clearly this judgment will not determine whether or not we are saved, which has already been determined in this life when, by God's grace, we embraced Christ as Savior and Lord. But there will be a future judgment that takes into account what we have done with the grace He has given us.

In my view, this is what Paul has in mind here in Galatians 6:5. It is not that he is unconcerned with the responsibility we each have to bear our own load now, but rather that we bear it now in light of the fact that we will have to bear it then. And, because each one of us must bear his or her own load, there are two things we must avoid: 1) conceit, and 2) comparing ourselves with others.

First, we must avoid conceit.

This is found in verse 3, where Paul says:
NKJ Galatians 6:3 For [γάρ, gár] if anyone thinks himself to be something, when he is nothing, he deceives himself.
This relates both to what came before it and what comes after it. Such conceit will prevent us from bearing one another's burdens as we should, as in verses 1-2, but it will also prevent us from taking proper responsibility for our own burdens, as in verse 5. And it will prevent us from accurately examining and assessing ourselves before the Lord, (as we shall see in verse 4. Paul is concerned that we avoid the same kind of conceit he has warned us about in the preceding context:
NKJ Galatians 5:26 Let us not become conceited, provoking one another, envying one another.
That such conceit is a common temptation for Christians is assumed by Paul not only here, but also in his other writings. For example:
NKJ Romans 12:3 For I say, through the grace given to me, to everyone who is among you, not to think of himself more highly than he ought to think, but to think soberly, as God has dealt to each one a measure of faith.

NKJ 1 Corinthians 4:7 For who makes you differ from another? And what do you have that you did not receive? Now if you did indeed receive it, why do you boast as if you had not received it?

NKJ Philippians 2:3-4 Let nothing be done through selfish ambition or conceit, but in lowliness of mind let each esteem others better than himself. 4 Let each of you look out not only for his own interests, but also for the interests of others.
As David Guzik has said, “If I esteem you above me, and you esteem me above you, a marvelous thing happens: we have a community where everyone is looked up to, and no one is looked down on!” (Commentary on Philippians, e-Sword).

At any rate, it is clear from passages such as these, as well as the text before us this morning, that Paul viewed pride as a grave danger that the Christian must avoid. Pride causes us to forget that we ourselves are completely dependent upon the grace of God, and it does this by deception. As Paul says in this verse, if anyone thinks himself to be something, when he is nothing, “he deceives himself.” This led Matthew Henry to conclude that “Self-conceit is but self-deceit.” (Commentary on the Whole Bible, e-Sword, italics mine)

It is pride that deceives us into thinking we are something when we are nothing. But what, exactly, does Paul mean when he uses the word nothing. Does he mean:
1) That we are “nothing” in the sense that we are totally worthless?

2) That we are “nothing” in comparison to God?

3) That we are “nothing” in comparison to what we are deceived into thinking we are?
I think Paul has in mind the latter of these three possibilities. After all, he is speaking in the context of the need to bear one another's burdens by helping one who is caught is some sin, and he warns us to be careful lest we too are tempted (as in vss. 1-2).

As we saw last week, if we are not careful, we can start to think that we are better than someone else who is struggling with some sin that we might not be dealing with ourselves. But a spiritual person (as in vs. 1) will realize that he too is capable of falling into sin and will be moved by compassion to help his brother rather than to look down on him.

The point here is really that we should be aware that a prideful attitude toward others in their struggle with sin necessarily means that we are self-deceived. In this sense we are tricked into thinking we are something when we are nothing. In reality we are no better than anyone else! We are all just sinners saved by grace!

Second, we must avoid comparing ourselves with others.

Conceit seems inevitably to lead to comparing ourselves with others, which is one reason we need to avoid it, and which is why I think Paul says what he says in verse 4:
NKJ Galatians 6:4 But let each one examine [Present Active Imperative > δοκιμάζω, dokimázō] his own work, and then he will have [Future active Indicate > ἔχω, échō] rejoicing [Noun καύχημα, kaúchēma] in himself alone, and not in another.
When Paul issues the primary command in this verse, that we must “each one examine his own work,” he assumes it is necessary because we are tempted to boast in comparison with others. He uses a Greek verb that means “to examine, to approve after testing or examination. The word was used for the testing of metals to see whether they were pure” (Linguistic Key to the Greek New Testament, p. 519). This word implies a very careful examination that we must each make of our own work, or whatever it is we do with our lives, particularly in service to the Lord.

When we each conduct such an examination and find something worthy of approval, then we will each have a cause for “rejoicing” in our own efforts rather than in comparison to the efforts of another. The Greek noun translated rejoicing here in the New King James Version refers to the ground or reason one has for boasting (Ling. Key, p. 519). This idea is better reflected in the ESV and the NASB. I think the KJV and NKJV prefer to translate it rejoicing because they want to avoid the idea that a Christian should ever boast in himself for any reason. They would certainly want to avoid the NIV's skewed translation that encourages a man to “take pride in himself.” Indeed, such an idea seems to go against the very concern Paul has in the context that we avoid conceit.

But is all boasting about something we find in ourselves to be considered prideful or sinful boasting? It certainly is if it is self-reliant or self-aggrandizing boasting. This is the kind of boasting James warns us about:
NKJ James 4:13-16 Come now, you who say, “Today or tomorrow we will go to such and such a city, spend a year there, buy and sell, and make a profit”; 14 whereas you do not know what will happen tomorrow. For what is your life? It is even a vapor that appears for a little time and then vanishes away. 15 Instead you ought to say, “If the Lord wills, we shall live and do this or that.” 16 But now you boast in your arrogance. All such boasting is evil.
But, again, is all boasting about something we find in ourselves to be considered prideful or sinful boasting? I don't think so, for, after examining ourselves thoroughly and finding something worthy of approval, we will also discover that it is a result of God's working in us. Remember what Paul wrote to the Ephesians on this point:
NKJ Ephesians 2:8-10 For by grace you have been saved through faith, and that not of yourselves; it is the gift of God, 9 not of works, lest anyone should boast. 10 For we are His workmanship, created in Christ Jesus for good works, which God prepared beforehand that we should walk in them.
So, we should never boast in such a way that we trust in and glorify our own works rather than the grace and working of God in our lives. But if God is working in our lives, then there will be something worthy of approval and thus worthy of boasting about, won't there? I think so, and I think this is why Paul elsewhere teaches that it is always a good thing to boast about what God has done in and through us. For example:
NKJ 1 Corinthians 1:26-31 For you see your calling, brethren, that not many wise according to the flesh, not many mighty, not many noble, are called. 27 But God has chosen the foolish things of the world to put to shame the wise, and God has chosen the weak things of the world to put to shame the things which are mighty; 28 and the base things of the world and the things which are despised God has chosen, and the things which are not, to bring to nothing the things that are, 29 that no flesh should glory [καυχάομαι, kaucháomai, boast, verb related to the noun καύχημα, kaúchēma, in Gal. 6:4] in His presence. 30 But of Him you are in Christ Jesus, who became for us wisdom from God – and righteousness and  sanctification and redemption – 31 that, as it is written, “He who glories [καυχάομαι, kaucháomai], let him glory [καυχάομαι, kaucháomai] in the LORD.”
NKJ 2 Corinthians 1:12 For our boasting [related noun καύχησις, kaúchēsis] is this: the testimony of our conscience that we conducted ourselves in the world in simplicity and godly sincerity, not with fleshly wisdom but by the grace of God, and more abundantly toward you.
NKJ 2 Corinthians 10:17-18 But “he who glories [καυχάομαι, kaucháomai], let him glory [καυχάομαι, kaucháomai] in the LORD.” 18 For not he who commends himself is approved [δόκιμος, dókimos, adjective related to the verb δοκιμάζω, dokimázō, in Gal. 6:4], but whom the Lord commends.
We too may boast about what God is doing in and through us. And we may look forward to doing so when we stand before Him in the final judgment, placing all our confidence in what He has done rather than in our own efforts or abilities.

Conclusion: I will conclude by encouraging all of us to ask ourselves such questions as, “When I put my own life to the test, do I find in myself good reason to boast about what God is doing for, in, and through me? Or do I find myself constantly comparing myself to others so that I can feel better about myself?”

As James Montgomery Boice points out, “To use others as a norm is a kind of escape” (EBC, Vol. 10, p. 502).

Let us not try to escape the results of careful examination before the Lord, and if we find little or nothing worthy of approval, let us ask the Lord to so work in us that we might look forward to standing before Him at the judgment, whether through saving us from sin or through renewing repentance and faith in a wayward heart.

But, on the other hand, let us also avoid the kind of self-centered introspection that loses sight of God's Word as the standard by which we must always judge ourselves. As Timothy George has insightfully observed:
… there is a great difference between introspection and self-examination. The former can easily devolve into a kind of narcissistic, spiritual navel-gazing that has more in common with types of Eastern mysticism than with classic models of the devotional life in historic Christianity. True self-examination is not merely taking one's spiritual pulse beat on a regular basis but rather submitting one's thoughts, attitudes, and actions to the will of God and the mind of Christ revealed in Holy Scripture.
Amen! I hope we will all take time this week for such self-examination, and perhaps, if we need to, ask help in this regard from our brothers and sisters ion the Lord.

Thursday, May 04, 2017

Bearing One Another's Burdens (Galatians 6:1-2 Teaching Outline)

Note: Begin reading the passage at 5:16 and read through 6:5 in order to get the context in mind. Note also that I have a habit of including references to Greek terms in my notes, whether I actually refer to them or not, so I have left them in with transliterations.

Introduction: These days it is not uncommon to hear people say, “I am a spiritual person.” It is a statement not infrequently heard from celebrities such as actors and pop singers, and it is becoming an increasingly popular sentiment. I’m not sure, however, precisely what is meant by the statement, and, frankly, I’m not sure those who make the claim know what they mean by it. Yet the Apostle Paul spoke of certain people as being spiritual, and he had a very definite understanding of the term in mind, one that he expected his fellow Christians to share. We shall begin to see what he means by the term as we examine the preceding context of our passage, in which Paul has described the Christian life as a battle between the flesh and the Spirit. For example:
NKJ Galatians 5:16-17 “I say then: Walk in the Spirit, and you shall not fulfill the lust of the flesh. 17 For the flesh lusts [Pres. Act. Ind. > ἐπιθυμέω, epithuméō, continually desires] against [κατά, katá] the Spirit, and the Spirit against [κατά] the flesh; and these are contrary [Pres. Mid. Ind. > ἀντίκειμαι, antíkeimai, constantly opposed] to one another, so that you do not do the things that you wish.”
Not surprisingly, then, Paul goes on to stress how crucial it is that we follow the Spirit's leading if we are to have victory in the conflict:
NKJ Galatians 5:25 “If we live in the Spirit, let us also walk in the Spirit.”
As we have seen, earlier in the epistle Paul already commanded us to walk in the Spirit (vs. 16), and then he also spoke of our being led by the Spirit, in which the active role of the Spirit Himself was emphasized (vs. 18). In those statements, as well as this one, Paul used the present tense to denote a continual or habitual walking or being led. In other words, being led by the Spirit, and thus walking in the Spirit, is not something we do once and then we are done. It is something that characterizes the whole life of the believer, day in and day out.

But in verse 25 Paul used a different word for walk than he used in verse 16. There he used the typical Greek word for walking – περιπατέω, peripatéō – but here in verse 25 he used a specialized Greek word – στοιχέω, stoichéō – which literally means to “be drawn up or advance in line, belong in the ranks” and was used of soldiers marching or advancing in line (Friberg #25001, BibleWorks). But it is used figuratively here with the sense of walking in the steps of the Spirit as He leads. The ESV Study Bible is thus on the right track when it says that this verb means to “walk in line behind a leader.” And J. I. Packer is also close to the mark when he takes it to mean that we must “keep in step with the Spirit” (in the book by that title). G. Walter Hansen has even been so bold as to assert:
Keep in step is a military command to make a straight line or to march in ordered rows. The Spirit sets the line and the pace for us to follow. Keeping in step with the Spirit takes active concentration and discipline of the whole person. We constantly see many alternative paths to follow; we reject them to follow the Spirit. We constantly hear other drummers who want to quicken or slow down our pace; we tune them out to listen only to the Spirit. (IVPNTC, e-Sword)
Paul has taught in this passage that we are in a battle with the flesh, in which “the desires of the flesh are against the Spirit, and the desires of the Spirit are against the flesh, for these are opposed to each other,” as he put it in verse 17 (ESV). In this battle we must learn to be led by the Spirit and to keep in step with His every command. This walking in the Spirit is similar to the way a soldier follows his commander and heeds his commands. So, we might say that, just as soldiers at war all have a pack to carry, so do we. And just as when one soldier is exhausted or wounded, the others help to carry the load, even so we must all recognize our responsibility to bear one another's burdens. We see this necessity in the central command of today's passage, which is found in verse 2:
NKJ Galatians 6:2a Bear [Present Active Imperative > βαστάζω, bastázō] one another's burdens [βάρος, báros]
But how should this be done? In what way are we to bear one another's burdens? We will see that we do this by restoring others and by loving others. Both of these ideas are taught by Paul in these verses. He begins by giving a specific application (restoring others) and then goes on to focus on the general principle behind it (loving others). We will follow this same order, then, in our examination of the text. And we will see that 1) we must bear one another's burdens by restoring others, and 2) we must bear one another's burdens by loving others.

I. We Must Bear One Another's Burdens By Restoring One Another
(vs. 1)

We see this principle clearly stated in verse one:
NKJ Galatians 6:1 Brethren, if a man is overtaken [προλαμβάνω, prolambánō] in any trespass [παράπτωμα, paráptōma], you who are spiritual [πνευματικός, pneumatikós] restore [Present Imperative > καταρτίζω, katartízō] such a one in a spirit of gentleness, considering yourself lest you also be tempted.
When he gives the command to restore one another, Paul uses a Greek verb (καταρτίζω, katartízō) that basically means to “put in order, restore to a former condition, mend, [or] repair” (Friberg #15350, BibleWorks). It was used in the Gospels to describe the disciples' mending of their nets (Matt. 4:21; Mark 1:19). But it also had a technical meaning as a medical term used to refer to setting a bone or joint (Linguistic Key, p. 518). So we can understand why it could have been used figuratively to describe the restoration of a sinning brother. The late James Montgomery Boice applied the term this way:
The verb is a medical term used in secular Greek for setting a fractured bone. What is wrong in the life of the fallen Christian is to be set straight. It is not to be neglected or exposed openly. (EBC, Vol. 10)
John Stott also offers some helpful observations about the implications of this command:
Notice how positive Paul’s instruction is. If we detect somebody doing something wrong, we are not to stand by doing nothing on the pretext that it is none of our business and we have no wish to be involved. Nor are we to despise and condemn him in our hearts, and if he suffers for his misdemeanor, say 'Serves him right' or 'Let him stew in his own juice.' Nor are we to report him to the minister, or gossip about him to our friends in the congregation. No, we are to 'restore' him, to 'set him back on the right path' (JBP). (The Message of Galatians, p. 160)
Or as David Guzik puts it, “The overtaken ones need to be restored. They are not to be ignored.  They are not to be excused. They are not to be destroyed. The goal is always restoration” (Commentary on Galatians, e-Sword).

Restoration is indeed the focus Paul wants us to have. But he not only commands us to restore one another; he also provides crucial information that we need in order to fulfill this responsibility. He says something about who should be restored, who should do the restoring, and how the restoration should be done. Let's briefly consider each of these points as we seek to understand Paul's teaching here.

1. Paul tells us who should be restored (vs. 1a).

He says that one “overtaken in any trespass” should be restored. The Greek verb translated overtaken (προλαμβάνω, prolambánō) here means “to overtake by surprise, to overpower before one can escape” (Linguistic Key, p. 518). The use of this verb probably indicates that the person is not deliberately or remorselessly sinning, but, even if he is deliberately sinning, the idea is that he has been caught or trapped in the sin.

I don't think, then, that Paul intends for us to be constantly confronting every possible sin we can find in a brother. Indeed, if that were the case, I don’t think we would have time for anything else! Rather he wants us to confront any trespass by which one has been overtaken. And this certainly means that no nagging or persistent sin should be let go without seeking to correct and restore the person caught in it.

2. Paul tells us who should do the restoring (vs. 1b).

He says that those “who are spiritual” should do the restoring. Given that he uses the plural when he addresses “you [plural] who are spiritual,” without any further qualification, we may assume that Paul is not referring to a select few here but to the majority. And we may not assume that Paul has in mind different classes of Christians, as some might be tempted to assume. When he refers to those who are spiritual, he means those who have attained a basic level of Christian maturity and consistency in their walk. If we recall the preceding context, we can say a number of things about those who are spiritual:
1) The spiritual are those who are trusting in Christ alone for salvation. They are those, for example, who can say with Paul:

NKJ Galatians 2:20-21 I have been crucified with Christ; it is no longer I who live, but Christ lives in me; and the life which I now live in the flesh I live by faith in the Son of God, who loved me and gave Himself for me. 21 I do not set aside the grace of God; for if righteousness comes through the law, then Christ died in vain.

2) The spiritual are those who have received the Spirit by faith. Remember, for example, Paul's earlier challenge:

NKJ Galatians 3:2-3 This only I want to learn from you: Did you receive the Spirit by the works of the law, or by the hearing of faith? 3 Are you so foolish? Having begun in the Spirit, are you now being made perfect by the flesh?

3) The spiritual are those who are walking in the Spirit and battling the flesh. As we have already seen, for example:

NKJ Galatians 5:16-17 I say then: Walk in the Spirit, and you shall not fulfill the lust of the flesh. 17 For the flesh lusts against the Spirit, and the Spirit against the flesh; and these are contrary to one another, so that you do not do the things that you wish.

4) The spiritual are those who are demonstrating the fruit of the Spirit.

NKJ Galatians 5:22-23 But the fruit of the Spirit is love, joy, peace, longsuffering, kindness, goodness, faithfulness, 23 gentleness [πραΰτης], self-control. Against such there is no law.

5) The spiritual are those who humbly realize that they have not yet arrived at a point where they themselves cannot fall into sin. For example:

NKJ Galatians 5:25-26 If we live in the Spirit, let us also walk in the Spirit. 26 Let us not become conceited ….

Or consider Paul's warning at the end of verse one, where he makes it clear that those who are spiritual may also be tempted to sin:

NKJ Galatians 6:1d … considering yourself lest you also be tempted.
This leads us to the next point.

3. Paul tells us how restoration should be done (vs. 1b-c).

He says at least two things about how restoration should be done.

First, restoration must be done caringly. I think this is indicated when Paul says that restoration should be done in a spirit of gentleness [πραΰτης, praǘtēs].

Here Paul is actually recalling an aspect of the fruit of the Spirit mentioned earlier in 5:23. The Greek word translated gentleness there in most modern translations may also be translated meekness, as in the King James Version. The Analytical Lexicon to the Greek New Testament defines it “as a quality of gentle friendliness gentleness, meekness (as strength that accommodates to another's weakness), [or] consideration” (Friberg #22840, BibleWorks). Jesus, who was God incarnate, demonstrated this attribute in his gentle calling to His disciples:
NKJ Matthew 11:28-29 Come to Me, all you who labor and are heavy laden, and I will give you rest. 29 Take My yoke upon you and learn from Me, for I am gentle [πραΰς, praǘs, adjective related to the noun πραΰτης, praǘtēs] and lowly in heart, and you will find rest for your souls.
Here we see Jesus as the ultimate example of “strength that accommodates to another's weakness,” for here we have One who is God Himself accommodating Himself to our weakness! And we are to follow His example when we seek to restore a fallen brother or sister in Christ. We too are to be gentle and lowly of heart as we confront their sin and encourage them to repent.

When Paul refers here to “a spirit” of gentleness, he may simply mean that we should have a gentle attitude or demeanor. But it is also possible that he means that we should restore a fallen brother by the Spirit who produces gentleness. Either way, in the context gentleness is definitely the attitude or demeanor we must have, and gentleness is definitely also that which comes from the Holy Spirit.

Second, restoration must be done cautiously. I think this is indicated when Paul says “considering yourself [singular] lest you [singular] also be tempted.”

The Linguistic Key to the Greek New Testament says concerning the verb translated considering here that “the verb indicates being sharply attentive, very diligent and the pres. tense indicates continually doing so” (p. 518). In other words, we need to be constantly on our guard lest, in our attempt to help another who is caught in sin, we too are tempted to sin.

But in what way might you or I be tempted to sin as we seek to restore a sinning brother or sister? Paul does not say precisely, but it might include several possibilities. For example:
(1) We might be tempted to fall into the same sin as the one we are trying to help.
(2) We might be tempted to be harsh or unforgiving.
(3) We might be tempted to be prideful and feel superior to them.
I think that Paul definitely has at least this this last problem in mind here, for he goes on to say in verse 3, “For if anyone thinks himself to be something, when he is nothing, he deceives himself.”

Pride will certainly get in the way of our effectiveness in bearing one another's burdens by restoring one another, but it will also keep us from loving one another as we should, and this leads to the second main point.

II. We Must Bear One Another's Burdens By Loving One Another (vs. 2b)

This is found in the second part of verse 2:
NKJ Galatians 6:2b and so fulfill [ἀναπληρόω, anaplēróō] the law of Christ.
Paul means by this that we must love one another, because this is what he means when he speaks of “the law of Christ.” This becomes clear when remember what he has said earlier in the context:
NKJ Galatians 5:13-14 For you, brethren, have been called to liberty; only do not use liberty as an opportunity for the flesh, but through love serve one another. 14 For all the law is fulfilled [πληρόω, pleróō] in one word, even in this: “You shall love your neighbor as yourself.”
It is important to remember also in this regard Jesus' own teaching, which I think Paul has in mind here:
NKJ John 13:34-35 A new commandment I give to you, that you love one another; as I have loved you, that you also love one another. 35 By this all will know that you are My disciples, if you have love for one another.
So, we bear one another's burdens by loving one another, or, better still, we love one another by bearing one another's burdens.

Thus, in this passage we have the general moral obligation to love one another, leading to the general principle that we must bear one another's burdens, and this in turn involves the specific application with which we have spent most of our time this morning, namely the restoring of a fallen brother or sister who has been caught in a sin.

So, we restore fallen brethren because it is the loving thing to do. The command to love others is what drives our interest in restoring others. Let us never think, then, that we are truly loving others if we neglect to confront a persistent sin in their lives! In fact, we would do well remember the original context of the command to “love your neighbor as yourself”:
NKJ Leviticus 19:17-18 You shall not hate your brother in your heart. You shall surely rebuke your neighbor, and not bear sin because of him. 18 You shall not take vengeance, nor bear any grudge against the children of your people, but you shall love your neighbor as yourself: I am the LORD.
But if loving others is the most important command, and restoring others is just one application of how we lovingly bear one another's burdens, we may assume that loving others will certainly involve bearing one another's burdens in other ways as well. For example, we could say further that:
1) We should bear one another's economic burdens. A good example of this would be Paul's challenge to the Corinthian church concerning giving. After noting of the example of sacrificial giving by the Macedonian churches, Paul says:
NKJ 2 Corinthians 8:8-15 I speak not by commandment, but I am testing the sincerity of your love by the diligence of others. 9 For you know the grace of our Lord Jesus Christ, that though He was rich, yet for your sakes He became poor, that you through His poverty might become rich. 10 And in this I give advice: It is to your advantage not only to be doing what you began and were desiring to do a year ago; 11 but now you also must complete the doing of it; that as there was a readiness to desire it, so there also may be a completion out of what you have. 12 For if there is first a willing mind, it is accepted according to what one has, and not according to what he does not have. 13 For I do not mean that others should be eased and you burdened; 14 but by an equality, that now at this time your abundance may supply their lack, that their abundance also may supply your lack-- that there may be equality. 15 As it is written, “He who gathered much had nothing left over, and he who gathered little had no lack.”

2) We should bear one another's emotional burdens. I think we can find a couple of examples of Paul's teaching about this elsewhere in Scripture as well. For example:

NKJ 2 Corinthians 1:3-5 Blessed be the God and Father of our Lord Jesus Christ, the Father of mercies and God of all comfort, 4 who comforts us in all our tribulation, that we may be able to comfort those who are in any trouble, with the comfort with which we ourselves are comforted by God. 5 For as the sufferings of Christ abound in us, so our consolation also abounds through Christ.

Or, as he puts it more simply to the Roman Christians:

NKJ Romans 12:15 Rejoice with those who rejoice, and weep with those who weep.
Conclusion: I would like to conclude simply by observing that Paul's teaching here assumes that, as we mature as Christians – as we learn to be more spiritual, which is to say, Spirit-led – we will bear one another's burdens. But doesn't this also assume that we will share our burdens with others so that they can help to bear them? I think John Stott insightfully addresses this matter in his commentary on verse 2:
Notice the assumption which lies behind this command, namely that we all have burdens and that God does not mean for us to carry them alone. Some people try to. They think it a sign of fortitude not to bother other people with their burdens. Such fortitude is certainly brave. But it is more stoical than Christian. Others remind us that we are told in Psalm 55:22 to 'cast your burden on the Lord, and he will sustain you', and that the Lord Jesus invited the heavy-laden to come to Him and promised to give them rest (Mt. 11:28). They therefore argue that we have a divine burden-bearer that is quite adequate, and that it is a sign of weakness to require any human help. This too is a grievous mistake. True, Jesus Christ alone can bear the burden of our sin and guilt; He bore it is His own body when He died on the cross. But this is not so with our other burdens – our worries, temptations, doubts, and sorrows. Certainly, we can cast these burdens on the Lord as well. We can cast all our care on Him, since He cares for us (I Pet. 5:7, AV). But remember that one of the ways in which He bears these burdens of ours is through human friendship (The Message of Galatians, p. 156)
I hope we will all better learn not only to take our burdens to the Lord in prayer, but also to allow our fellow believers to be instruments of the Lord in our lives by humbly sharing our burdens with them and even accepting correction from them when we need it. In fact, I hope we will learn even to share the burden of a besetting sin if need be. As the Apostle James admonishes us:
NKJ James 5:16 Confess your trespasses to one another, and pray for one another, that you may be healed. The effective, fervent prayer of a righteous man avails much.

Friday, April 28, 2017

The Self-attesting Authority of Scripture (Teaching Outline)

Introduction: The Baptist Confession of 1689 speaks of our strongly held belief in the self-attesting truth and authority of Scripture when it states:
We may be moved and induced by the testimony of the Church of God to a high and reverent esteem of the Holy Scriptures; and the heavenliness of the matter, the efficacy of the doctrine, and the majesty of the style, the consent of all the parts, the scope of the whole (which is to give all glory to God), the full discovery it makes of the only way of man's salvation, and many other incomparable excellencies, and entire perfections thereof, are arguments whereby it does abundantly evidence itself to be the Word of God. Yet notwithstanding, our full persuasion and assurance of the infallible truth and divine authority thereof is from the inward work of the Holy Spirit, bearing witness by and with the Word in our hearts. [Jo. 16:13-14; 1 Cor. 2:10-12; 1 John 2:2, 20, 27.] (Ch. 1.5)
Thus our confession succinctly describes both the idea of the self-attesting, or self-evidencing, nature of Scripture and the idea that the work of the Holy Spirit in our hearts is necessary in order for us be fully persuaded and assured that Scripture really is the Word of God. Today I would like to take some time to briefly review some of the ways in which Scripture testifies to its own truthfulness, inerrancy, authority, and sufficiency, with the hope that the Holy Spirit will indeed work “by and with the Word in our hearts” in order to help strengthen our “assurance of the infallible truth and divine authority thereof.”

I. The Truthfulness of Scripture

The truthfulness of Scripture is assured because Scripture is the Word of God and because God cannot lie. Thus we can be confident that we have the very word of God Himself in Scripture because He worked through the writers of Scripture in order to ensure this very thing. Remember, for example, David’s prayer of gratitude after God established His covenant with him:
NKJ 2 Samuel 7:28 And now, O Lord GOD, You are God, and Your words are true, and You have promised this goodness to Your servant.
Recall also the words that the LORD put in the mouth of Balaam after Balak had asked him to curse Israel:
NKJ Numbers 23:19 God is not a man, that He should lie, nor a son of man, that He should repent. Has He said, and will He not do? Or has He spoken, and will He not make it good?
In other words, God never lies, and He never fails to keep His promises. This is a fact that the Apostle Paul also affirms in the opening of his Epistle to Titus:
NKJ Titus 1:1-2 Paul, a bondservant of God and an apostle of Jesus Christ, according to the faith of God's elect and the acknowledgment of the truth which accords with godliness, 2 in hope of eternal life which God, who cannot lie, promised before time began …
The author of Hebrews also stresses this important fact as the basis for our assurance:
NKJ Hebrews 6:11-18 And we desire that each one of you show the same diligence to the full assurance of hope until the end, 12 that you do not become sluggish, but imitate those who through faith and patience inherit the promises. 13 For when God made a promise to Abraham, because He could swear by no one greater, He swore by Himself, 14 saying, ‘Surely blessing I will bless you, and multiplying I will multiply you.’ 15 And so, after he had patiently endured, he obtained the promise. 16 For men indeed swear by the greater, and an oath for confirmation is for them an end of all dispute. 17 Thus God, determining to show more abundantly to the heirs of promise the immutability of His counsel, confirmed it by an oath, 18 that by two immutable things, in which it is impossible for God to lie, we might have strong consolation, who have fled for refuge to lay hold of the hope set before us.
Because God cannot lie, we also know, then, that Scripture is true, since Scripture is the Word of God. The Apostle Peter describes how God gave us Scripture this way:
NKJ 2 Peter 1:19-21 And so we have the prophetic word confirmed, which you do well to heed as a light that shines in a dark place, until the day dawns and the morning star rises in your hearts; 20 knowing this first, that no prophecy of Scripture is of any private interpretation [NET = “No prophecy of Scripture ever comes about by the prophet's own imagination”], 21 for prophecy never came by the will of man, but holy men of God spoke as they were moved by the Holy Spirit.
Scripture thus testifies of the truthfulness of God and of the fact that God gave us the Scriptures as a revelation of His own Word. We are therefore not surprised to find that Scripture repeatedly proclaims its own truthfulness as the Word of God. For example, the Psalmist asserts the truth of the entirety of Scripture when he writes in praise to God:
NKJ Psalm 119:160 The entirety of Your word is truth, and every one of Your righteous judgments endures forever.
Our Lord Jesus also asserted that the Word of God – and thus Scripture –  is true when He prayed for us:
NKJ John 17:17 Sanctify them by Your truth. Your word is truth.
It is no wonder, then, that the Apostle Paul admonishes pastors to be careful in their handling of the Word of God when he writes to Timothy:
NKJ 2 Timothy 2:15 Be diligent to present yourself approved to God, a worker who does not need to be ashamed, rightly dividing [or accurately handling, as in NASB] the word of truth.
Thus we see how Scripture testifies both to the truthfulness of God and to its own truthfulness as the Word of God. Yet this has other implications as well. For example, if all of Scripture is true because it is the Word of God Himself, then it necessarily follows that it is also infallible, which leads us to our next point.

II. The Inerrancy of Scripture

Scripture repeatedly assumes its own infallibility or inerrancy, not only as a necessary conclusion to be drawn from its complete truthfulness, but also in other ways. For example, David wrote:
NKJ Psalm 12:6-7 The words of the LORD are pure words, like silver tried in a furnace of earth, Purified seven times. 7 You shall keep them, O LORD, You shall preserve them from this generation forever.
When David says that the words of the LORD are “pure,” the context indicates that he means to say that they are “untainted by falsehood or deception” (NET Bible notes, BibleWorks). This is in stark contrast to the words of the wicked mentioned previously in verse 2, who speak “with flattering lips and with a double heart.” Their words cannot be trusted, and they are also ever changing, unlike the words of the LORD, for he “shall preserve them from this generation forever.” Thus the implication is that the Word of God is also trustworthy; it is reliable.

The truth and reliability of the Word of God is also a repeated theme in Psalm 119. For example:
NKJ Psalm 119:86 All Your commandments are faithful [sure, trustworthy]; they persecute me wrongfully [ESV = “with falsehood”]; help me!
NKJ Psalm 119:151 You are near, O LORD, and all Your commandments are truth.
And, although we have already considered this next verse from Psalm 119, we would do well to consider it again here:
NKJ Psalm 119:160 The entirety of Your word is truth, and every one of Your righteous judgments endures forever.
The complete truthfulness and trustworthy character of God and His Word, which means also the infallibility or inerrancy of God and His Word, are thus a consistent source of assurance for believers and a consistent reason for praising God.

Our Lord Jesus also constantly assumed the truthfulness and reliability of Scripture when He said such things as, “For assuredly, I say to you, till heaven and earth pass away, one jot or one tittle will by no means pass from the law till all is fulfilled” (Matt. 5:18), or that “the Scripture cannot be broken” (John 10:35). In fact, when Jesus appeals to Scripture to support an argument against the Pharisees and thus says that “the Scripture cannot be broken,” He assumes not only the truth and reliability of God’s Word but also the complete authority of God’s Word, which leads us to our next point.

III. The Authority of Scripture

Since God is Creator and thus the absolute authority for all men everywhere and at all times, it necessarily follows that Scripture, which is the very Word of God Himself, is also the absolute authority for all men everywhere and at all times. This is a necessary inference.

Yet Scripture also repeatedly testifies of its own authority in other ways as well. For example, we are told that the people of Israel were supposed to have learned to accept the absolute authority of God’s Word as a result of the forty years they spent wandering in the wilderness:
NKJ Deuteronomy 8:1-3 Every commandment which I command you today you must be careful to observe, that you may live and multiply, and go in and possess the land of which the LORD swore to your fathers. 2 And you shall remember that the LORD your God led you all the way these forty years in the wilderness, to humble you and test you, to know what was in your heart, whether you would keep His commandments or not. 3 So He humbled you, allowed you to hunger, and fed you with manna which you did not know nor did your fathers know, that He might make you know that man shall not live by bread alone; but man lives by every word that proceeds from the mouth of the LORD.
Later, Moses taught about the prophetic office through which God would continue speak to His people:
NKJ Deuteronomy 18:15-19 The LORD your God will raise up for you a Prophet like me from your midst, from your brethren. Him you shall hear, 16 according to all you desired of the LORD your God in Horeb in the day of the assembly, saying, “Let me not hear again the voice of the LORD my God, nor let me see this great fire anymore, lest I die.” 17 And the LORD said to me: “What they have spoken is good. 18 I will raise up for them a Prophet like you from among their brethren, and will put My words in His mouth, and He shall speak to them all that I command Him. 19 And it shall be that whoever will not hear My words, which He speaks in My name, I will require it of him.”
Thus the Word of God as spoken through the prophets was understood to have the authority of God Himself, and to disobey this Word was to disobey God Himself. There are many examples of this in Scripture, but one will have to suffice for our purposes today. Consider the example of Saul, whom the LORD had commanded through the prophet Samuel to “go and attack Amalek, and utterly destroy all that they have, and do not spare them” (1 Sam. 15:3a). But Saul did not obey, and we read about Samuel’s confrontation of Saul in 1 Samuel 15:
NKJ 1 Samuel 15:18-23 “Now the LORD sent you on a mission, and said, ‘Go, and utterly destroy the sinners, the Amalekites, and fight against them until they are consumed.’ 19 Why then did you not obey the voice of the LORD? Why did you swoop down on the spoil, and do evil in the sight of the LORD?” 20 And Saul said to Samuel, “But I have obeyed the voice of the LORD, and gone on the mission on which the LORD sent me, and brought back Agag king of Amalek; I have utterly destroyed the Amalekites. 21 But the people took of the plunder, sheep and oxen, the best of the things which should have been utterly destroyed, to sacrifice to the LORD your God in Gilgal.” 22 Then Samuel said: “Has the LORD as great delight in burnt offerings and sacrifices, as in obeying the voice of the LORD? Behold, to obey is better than sacrifice, and to heed than the fat of rams. 23 For rebellion is as the sin of witchcraft, and stubbornness is as iniquity and idolatry. Because you have rejected the word of the LORD, He also has rejected you from being king.”
To disobey the Word of God is a very serious thing indeed! For God is the one to whom all obedience is due, as our sovereign Creator and absolute authority. His Word must therefore be obeyed as an absolute authority, and, as we have seen, we have that Word recorded for us in Scripture.

Later, when Jesus began His teaching ministry as the Messiah, He also appealed to the authority of Scripture as the Word of God in His confrontation of the devil:
NKJ Matthew 4:1-4 Then Jesus was led up by the Spirit into the wilderness to be tempted by the devil. 2 And when He had fasted forty days and forty nights, afterward He was hungry. 3 Now when the tempter came to Him, he said, “If You are the Son of God, command that these stones become bread.” 4 But He answered and said, “It is written, “Man shall not live by bread alone, but by every word that proceeds from the mouth of God.”
Thus Jesus cited Deuteronomy 8:3, which we have already read, after which He twice more cited Scripture in His confrontation of the devil. He clearly saw Scripture as the authority upon which He relied as the Messiah and which even the devil ought to have recognized as such. This is also why Jesus regularly cited Scripture in His teaching and in His refutation of error, and it is why He rebuked those who wickedly undermined the authority of Scripture in their own teaching. Recall, for example, an encounter that Jesus once had with a group of Sadducees:
NKJ Matthew 22:23-32 The same day the Sadducees, who say there is no resurrection, came to Him and asked Him, 24 saying: “Teacher, Moses said that if a man dies, having no children, his brother shall marry his wife and raise up offspring for his brother. 25 Now there were with us seven brothers. The first died after he had married, and having no offspring, left his wife to his brother. 26 Likewise the second also, and the third, even to the seventh. 27 Last of all the woman died also. 28 Therefore, in the resurrection, whose wife of the seven will she be? For they all had her.” 29 Jesus answered and said to them, “You are mistaken, not knowing the Scriptures nor the power of God. 30 For in the resurrection they neither marry nor are given in marriage, but are like angels of God in heaven. 31 But concerning the resurrection of the dead, have you not read what was spoken to you by God, saying, 32 ‘I am the God of Abraham, the God of Isaac, and the God of Jacob’? God is not the God of the dead, but of the living.”
Thus Jesus rebuked the Sadducees for their failure to properly understand and apply Scripture, and He appealed to the proper understanding of Scripture as His authority in correcting them.

Jesus also challenged the Pharisees and scribes for their own undermining of Scriptural authority:
NKJ Mark 7:9-13 He said to them, “All too well you reject the commandment of God, that you may keep your tradition. 10 For Moses said, ‘Honor your father and your mother’ [citing Exod. 20:12]; and, ‘He who curses father or mother, let him be put to death [citing Exod. 21:17].’ 11 But you say, ‘If a man says to his father or mother, ‘Whatever profit you might have received from me is Corban’ -- (that is, a gift to God), 12 then you no longer let him do anything for his father or his mother, 13 making the word of God of no effect through your tradition which you have handed down. And many such things you do.”
Thus our Lord Jesus would not countenance the distortion of Scripture or the undermining of its authority by anyone, especially by those who ought to have known better. In the process, His own appeals to Scripture, and His careful handling of it, demonstrate not only His commitment to the absolute authority of Scripture but also His reliance on Scripture as a sufficient guide to which nothing needs to be added by us. And this leads us to our fourth and final point.

IV. The Sufficiency of Scripture

When we speak of the sufficiency of Scripture, we are talking about the fact that it fully serves the purpose for which God has given it to us. As Wayne Grudem has stated, “We can define the sufficiency of Scripture as follows: The sufficiency of Scripture means that Scripture contained all the words of God he intended his people to have at each stage of redemptive history, and that it now contains everything we need God to tell us for salvation, for trusting him perfectly, and for obeying him perfectly” (Systematic Theology, p. 127).

Such a view of Scripture necessarily follows from much of what we have already considered. But we shall nevertheless consider briefly a couple of additional passages in which Scripture clearly testifies as to its own sufficiency. David spoke, for example, of this idea in Psalm 19 when he wrote:
NKJ Psalm 19:7-9 The law of the LORD is perfect, converting the soul; the testimony of the LORD is sure, making wise the simple; 8 the statutes of the LORD are right, rejoicing the heart; the commandment of the LORD is pure, enlightening the eyes; 9 the fear of the LORD is clean, enduring forever; the judgments of the LORD are true and righteous altogether.
 I think John MacArthur correctly states the point David is making in verse 7 when he writes:
In the first statement (v. 7), David says, “The law of the Lord is perfect, restoring the soul.” This word “perfect” is the translation of a common Hebrew word meaning “whole,” “complete,” or “sufficient.” It conveys the idea of something that is comprehensive, so as to cover all aspects of an issue. Scripture is comprehensive, embodying all that is necessary to one’s spiritual life. David’s implied contrast here is with the imperfect, insufficient, flawed reasoning of men.
[And he goes on to add:] God’s perfect law, David says, affects people by “restoring the soul” (v. 7). To paraphrase David’s words, Scripture is so powerful and comprehensive that it can convert or transform the entire person, changing someone into precisely the person God wants him to be. God’s Word is sufficient to restore through salvation even the most broken life—a fact to which David himself gave abundant testimony. (TMSJ 15/2 [Fall 2004] 167-168)
Such was also the teaching of the Apostle Paul, when he admonished Timothy that:
NKJ 2 Timothy 3:16-17 All Scripture is given by inspiration of God, and is profitable for doctrine, for reproof, for correction, for instruction in righteousness, 17 that the man of God may be complete, thoroughly equipped for every good work.
We need go nowhere else to find all that we need in order to be saved, to be sanctified, and to properly serve God in this world.

Conclusion: Charles Spurgeon is often quoted as saying that “The Word of God is like a lion. You don’t have to defend a lion. All you have to do is let the lion loose, and the lion will defend itself.”

I have tried not to get in the way of that lion in this teaching! Instead, it has been my hope that the Holy Spirit has worked “by and with the Word in our hearts” in order to help strengthen our “assurance of the infallible truth and divine authority thereof.”

Saturday, April 22, 2017

"The Inspiration and Authority of the Old Testament" by Bob Gonzales



As usual, Bob Gonzales offers excellent teaching. He gives an overview of the Biblical doctrine of the inspiration and authority of Scripture, with special emphasis, of course, on the inspiration and authority of the Old Testament Scriptures. He covers 1) the Self-Attestation of Scripture, 2) the Self-Authentication of Scripture, and 3) the Spirit's Saving Authentication of Scripture.

I never fail to learn from Bob, and I hope you will find his teaching a blessing to you as well. Also, be sure sure to check out his personal blog It Is Written. as always, we welcome your comments or questions.